/ General Physics arXiv:0805.0123


Study of the effects induced by lead on the emulsion films of the OPERA experiment


Anokhina, A. (SINP, Moscow) ; Aoki, S. (Kobe U.) ; Ariga, A. (Nagoya U.) ; Arrabito, L. (Lyon, IPN) ; Autiero, D. (Lyon, IPN) ; Badertscher, A. (Zurich, ETH) ; Bay, F. (Middle East Tech. U., Ankara) ; Bergnoli, A. (INFN, Padua) ; Bersani Greggio, F. (Frascati) ; Besnier, M. (Annecy, LAPP) ; Bick, D. (Hamburg U.) ; Bozza, C. (INFN, Salerno) ; Brugiere, T. (Lyon, IPN) ; Brugnera, R. (INFN, Padua) ; Brunetti, G. (INFN, Bologna) ; Buontempo, S. (INFN, Naples) ; Carrara, E. (INFN, Padua) ; Cazes, A. (Frascati) ; Chaussard, L. (Lyon, IPN) ; Chernyavsky, M. (Lebedev Inst.) ; Chiarella, V. (Frascati) ; Chon-Sen, N. (Louis Pasteur U., Strasbourg I) ; Chukanov, A. (INFN, Naples) ; Consiglio, L. (INFN, Bologna) ; Cozzi, M. (INFN, Bologna) ; Dal Corso, F. (INFN, Padua) ; D'Amato, G. (INFN, Salerno) ; D'Ambrosio, N. (INFN, Aquila) ; De Lellis, G. (INFN, Naples) ; Declais, Y. (Lyon, IPN) ; De Serio, M. (INFN, Bari) ; Di Capua, F. (INFN, Naples) ; Di Ferdinando, D. (INFN, Bologna) ; Di Giovanni, A. (INFN, Aquila) ; Di Marco, N. (INFN, Aquila) ; Di Troia, C. (Frascati) ; Dmitrievski, S. (Dubna, JINR) ; Dominjon, A. (Lyon, IPN) ; Dracos, M. (Louis Pasteur U., Strasbourg I) ; Duchesneau, D. (Annecy, LAPP) ; Dulach, B. (Frascati) ; Dusini, S. (INFN, Padua) ; Ebert, J. (Hamburg U.) ; Egorov, O. (Moscow, ITEP) ; Enikeev, R. (Moscow, INR) ; Ereditato, A. (Bern U.) ; Esposito, L.S. (INFN, Aquila) ; Favier, J. (Annecy, LAPP) ; Felici, G. (Frascati) ; Ferber, T. (Hamburg U.) ; Fini, R. (INFN, Bari) ; Franceschi, A. (Frascati) ; Fukuda, T. (Nagoya U.) ; Fukushima, C. (Toho U.) ; Galkin, V.I. (SINP, Moscow) ; Galkin, V.A. (Obninsk, Inst. Phys. Power Eng.) ; Garfagnini, A. (INFN, Padua) ; Giacomelli, G. (INFN, Bologna) ; Giorgini, M. (INFN, Bologna) ; Goellnitz, C. (Hamburg U.) ; Golubkov, D. (Moscow, ITEP) ; Gornoushkin, Y. (Dubna, JINR) ; Grella, G. (INFN, Salerno) ; Grianti, F. (Frascati) ; Guler, M. (Middle East Tech. U., Ankara) ; Gusev, G. (Lebedev Inst.) ; Gustavino, C. (INFN, Aquila) ; Hagner, Caren (Hamburg U.) ; Hara, T. (Kobe U.) ; Hierholzer, M. (Hamburg U.) ; Hiramatsu, S. (Nagoya U.) ; Hoshino, Kaoru (Nagoya U.) ; Ieva, M. (INFN, Bari) ; Jakovcic, K. (Boskovic Inst., Zagreb) ; Janicsko Csathy, J. (Neuchatel U.) ; Janutta, B. (Hamburg U.) ; Jollet, C. (Louis Pasteur U., Strasbourg I) ; Juget, F. (Neuchatel U.) ; Kawai, T. (Nagoya U.) ; Kazuyama, M. (Nagoya U.) ; Kim, S.H. (Gyeongsang Natl. U.) ; Kimura, M. (Toho U.) ; Knuesel, J. (Bern U.) ; Kodama, K. (Aichi U.) ; Komatsu, M. (Nagoya U.) ; Kose, U. (Middle East Tech. U., Ankara) ; Kreslo, I. (Bern U.) ; Laktineh, I. (Lyon, IPN) ; Lazzaro, C. (Zurich, ETH) ; Lenkeit, J. (Hamburg U.) ; Ljubicic, A. (Boskovic Inst., Zagreb) ; Longhin, Andrea (INFN, Padua) ; Lutter, G. (Neuchatel U.) ; Manai, K. (Lyon, IPN) ; Mandrioli, G. (INFN, Bologna) ; Manzoor, S. (INFN, Bologna) ; Marotta, A. (INFN, Naples) ; Marteau, J. (Lyon, IPN) ; Matsuoka, H. (Nagoya U.) ; Mauri, N. (INFN, Bologna) ; Meisel, F. (Neuchatel U.) ; Meregaglia, A. (Louis Pasteur U., Strasbourg I) ; Messina, M. (Bern U.) ; Migliozzi, P. (INFN, Naples) ; Miyamoto, S. (Nagoya U.) ; Monacelli, P. (INFN, Aquila) ; Morishima, K. (Nagoya U.) ; Moser, U. (Bern U.) ; Muciaccia, M.T. (INFN, Bari) ; Naganawa, N. (Nagoya U.) ; Naka, T. (Nagoya U.) ; Nakamura, M. (Nagoya U.) ; Nakamura, T. (Nagoya U.) ; Nakano, T. (Nagoya U.) ; Nikitina, V. (SINP, Moscow) ; Niwa, K. (Nagoya U.) ; Nonoyama, Y. (Nagoya U.) ; Ogawa, S. (Toho U.) ; Osedlo, V. (SINP, Moscow) ; Ossetski, D. (Obninsk, Inst. Phys. Power Eng.) ; Paoloni, A. (Frascati) ; Park, B.D. (Gyeongsang Natl. U.) ; Park, I.G. (Gyeongsang Natl. U.) ; Pastore, A. (INFN, Bari) ; Patrizii, L. (INFN, Bologna) ; Pennacchio, E. (Lyon, IPN) ; Pessard, H. (Annecy, LAPP) ; Pistillo, C. (Bern U.) ; Polukhina, N. (Lebedev Inst.) ; Pozzato, M. (INFN, Bologna) ; Pretzl, K. (Bern U.) ; Publichenko, P. (SINP, Moscow) ; Pupilli, F. (INFN, Aquila) ; Roganova, T. (SINP, Moscow) ; Rosa, G. (INFN, Rome) ; Rostovtseva, I. (Moscow, ITEP) ; Rubbia, A. (Zurich, ETH) ; Russo, A. (INFN, Naples) ; Ryazhskaya, O. (Moscow, INR) ; Ryzhikov, D. (Obninsk, Inst. Phys. Power Eng.) ; Sato, Y. (Utsunomiya U.) ; Sato, O. (Nagoya U.) ; Saveliev, V. (Obninsk, Inst. Phys. Power Eng.) ; Sazhina, G. (SINP, Moscow) ; Schembri, A. (INFN, Aquila) ; Scotto Lavina, L. (INFN, Naples) ; Shibuya, H. (Toho U.) ; Simone, S. (INFN, Bari) ; Sioli, M. (INFN, Bologna) ; Sirignano, C. (INFN, Salerno) ; Sirri, G. (INFN, Bologna) ; Song, J.S. (Gyeongsang Natl. U.) ; Spinetti, M. (Frascati) ; Stanco, L. (INFN, Padua) ; Starkov, N. (Lebedev Inst.) ; Stipcevic, M. (Boskovic Inst., Zagreb) ; Strauss, T. (Zurich, ETH) ; Strolin, Paolo Emilio (INFN, Naples) ; Sugonyaev, V. (INFN, Padua) ; Taira, Y. (Nagoya U.) ; Takahashi, S. (Nagoya U.) ; Tenti, M. (INFN, Bologna) ; Terranova, F. (Frascati) ; Tioukov, V. (INFN, Naples) ; Togo, V. (INFN, Bologna) ; Tolun, P. (Middle East Tech. U., Ankara) ; Tsarev, V. (Lebedev Inst.) ; Tufanli, S. (Middle East Tech. U., Ankara) ; Ushida, N. (Aichi U.) ; Valieri, C.. (INFN, Bologna) ; Vilain, P. (Lebedev Inst.) ; Vladimirov, M. (Lebedev Inst.) ; Votano, L. (Frascati) ; Vuilleumier, J.L. (Neuchatel U.) ; Wilquet, G. (Hamburg U.) ; Wonsak, B. (Hamburg U.) ; Wurtz, J. (Louis Pasteur U., Strasbourg I) ; Yoon, C.S. (Gyeongsang Natl. U.) ; Yoshida, J. (Nagoya U.) ; Zaitsev, Y. (Moscow, ITEP) ; Zemskova, S. (Dubna, JINR) ; Zghiche, A. (Annecy, LAPP) ; Zimmermann, R. (Hamburg U.)

Published in: JINST
Year: 2008
Vol.: 3
Page No: P07002
Pages: 19

Abstract: The OPERA neutrino oscillation experiment is based on the use of the Emulsion Cloud Chamber (ECC). In the OPERA ECC, nuclear emulsion films acting as very high precision tracking detectors are interleaved with lead plates providing a massive target for neutrino interactions. We report on studies related to the effects occurring from the contact between emulsion and lead. A low radioactivity lead is required in order to minimize the number of background tracks in emulsions and to achieve the required performance in the reconstruction of neutrino events. It was observed that adding other chemical elements to the lead, in order to improve the mechanical properties, may significantly increase the level of radioactivity on the emulsions. A detailed study was made in order to choose a lead alloy with good mechanical properties and an appropriate packing technique so as to have a low enough effective radioactivity.

Keyword(s): nuclear emulsions ; OPEAR experiment ; lead alloy ; polonium migration ; alpha-radioactivity

Web-Page: http://inspirebeta.net/record/784776/files/fig1-JInst.png; http://inspirebeta.net/record/784776/files/fig10-JInst.png; http://inspirebeta.net/record/784776/files/fig11-JInst.png; http://inspirebeta.net/record/784776/files/fig2-JInst.png; http://inspirebeta.net/record/784776/files/fig3-JInst.png; http://inspirebeta.net/record/784776/files/fig4-JInst.png; http://inspirebeta.net/record/784776/files/fig5-JInst.png; http://inspirebeta.net/record/784776/files/fig6-JInst.png; http://inspirebeta.net/record/784776/files/fig7a-JInst.png; http://inspirebeta.net/record/784776/files/fig7b-JInst.png; http://inspirebeta.net/record/784776/files/fig8-JInst.png; http://inspirebeta.net/record/784776/files/fig9-JInst.png

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