/ Theory-Nucl nucl-ex/0501009


Experimental and theoretical challenges in the search for the quark gluon plasma: The STAR Collaboration's critical assessment of the evidence from RHIC collisions


Adams, John (Birmingham U.) ; Aggarwal, M.M. (Panjab U.) ; Ahammed, Z. (Calcutta, VECC) ; Amonett, J. (Kent State U.) ; Anderson, B.D. (Kent State U.) ; Arkhipkin, D. (Dubna, JINR) ; Averichev, G.S. (Dubna, JINR) ; Badyal, S.K. (Jammu U.) ; Bai, Y. (NIKHEF, Amsterdam) ; Balewski, J. (Indiana U.) ; Barannikova, Olga Yu. (Purdue U.) ; Barnby, L.S. (Birmingham U.) ; Baudot, J. (Strasbourg, IReS) ; Bekele, S. (Ohio State U.) ; Belaga, V.V. (Dubna, JINR) ; Bellingeri-Laurikainen, A. (SUBATECH, Nantes) ; Bellwied, R. (Wayne State U.) ; Berger, J. (Frankfurt U.) ; Bezverkhny, B.I. (Yale U.) ; Bharadwaj, S. (Rajasthan U.) ; Bhasin, A. (Jammu U.) ; Bhati, A.K. (Panjab U.) ; Bhatia, V.S. (Panjab U.) ; Bichsel, H. (Washington U., Seattle) ; Bielcik, J. (Yale U.) ; Bielcikova, J. (Yale U.) ; Billmeier, A. (Wayne State U.) ; Bland, L.C. (Brookhaven) ; Blyth, C.O. (Birmingham U.) ; Bonner, B.E. (Rice U.) ; Botje, M. (NIKHEF, Amsterdam) ; Boucham, A. (SUBATECH, Nantes) ; Bouchet, J. (SUBATECH, Nantes) ; Brandin, A.V. (Moscow Phys. Eng. Inst.) ; Bravar, A. (Brookhaven) ; Bystersky, M. (Rez, Nucl. Phys. Inst.) ; Cadman, R.V. (Argonne) ; Cai, X.Z. (SINAP, Shanghai) ; Caines, H. (Yale U.) ; Calderon de la Barca Sanchez, M. (Indiana U.) ; Castillo, J. (LBL, Berkeley) ; Catu, O. (Yale U.) ; Cebra, D.A. (UC, Davis) ; Chajecki, Z. (Ohio State U.) ; Chaloupka, P. (Rez, Nucl. Phys. Inst.) ; Chattopadhyay, S. (Calcutta, VECC) ; Chen, H.F. (Hefei, CUST) ; Chen, Y. (UCLA) ; Cheng, J. (Tsinghua U., Beijing) ; Cherney, Michael G. (Creighton U.) ; Chikanian, A. (Yale U.) ; Christie, W. (Brookhaven) ; Coffin, J.P. (Strasbourg, IReS) ; Cormier, T.M. (Wayne State U.) ; Cramer, J.G. (Washington U., Seattle) ; Crawford, H.J. (UC, Berkeley) ; Das, D. (Calcutta, VECC) ; Das, S. (Calcutta, VECC) ; de Moura, M.M. (Sao Paulo U.) ; Dedovich, T.G. (Dubna, JINR) ; Derevschikov, A.A. (Serpukhov, IHEP) ; Didenko, L. (Brookhaven) ; Dietel, T. (Frankfurt U.) ; Dogra, S.M. (Jammu U.) ; Dong, W.J. (UCLA) ; Dong, X. (Hefei, CUST) ; Draper, J.E. (UC, Davis) ; Du, F. (Yale U.) ; Dubey, A.K. (Bhubaneswar, Inst. Phys.) ; Dunin, V.B. (Dubna, JINR) ; Dunlop, J.C. (Brookhaven) ; Dutta Mazumdar, M.R. (Calcutta, VECC) ; Eckardt, V. (Munich, Max Planck Inst.) ; Edwards, W.R. (LBL, Berkeley) ; Efimov, L.G. (Dubna, JINR) ; Emelianov, V. (Moscow Phys. Eng. Inst.) ; Engelage, J. (UC, Berkeley) ; Eppley, G. (Rice U.) ; Erazmus, B. (SUBATECH, Nantes) ; Estienne, M. (SUBATECH, Nantes) ; Fachini, P. (Brookhaven) ; Faivre, J. (Strasbourg, IReS) ; Fatemi, R. (Indiana U.) ; Fedorisin, J. (Dubna, JINR) ; Filimonov, K. (LBL, Berkeley) ; Filip, P. (Rez, Nucl. Phys. Inst.) ; Finch, E. (Yale U.) ; Fine, V. (Brookhaven) ; Fisyak, Y. (Brookhaven) ; Fu, J. (Tsinghua U., Beijing) ; Gagliardi, C.A. (Texas A-M) ; Gaillard, L. (Birmingham U.) ; Gans, J. (Yale U.) ; Ganti, M.S. (Calcutta, VECC) ; Geurts, F. (Rice U.) ; Ghazikhanian, V. (UCLA) ; Ghosh, P. (Calcutta, VECC) ; Gonzalez, J.E. (UCLA) ; Gos, H.R. (Warsaw U. of Tech.) ; Grachov, Oleg A. (Wayne State U.) ; Grebenyuk, O. (NIKHEF, Amsterdam) ; Grosnick, D. (Valparaiso U., Indiana) ; Guertin, S.M. (UCLA) ; Guo, Y. (Wayne State U.) ; Gupta, A. (Jammu U.) ; Gutierrez, T.D. (UC, Davis) ; Hallman, T.J. (Brookhaven) ; Hamed, A. (Wayne State U.) ; Hardtke, D. (LBL, Berkeley) ; Harris, J.W. (Yale U.) ; Heinz, M. (Bern U.) ; Henry, T.W. (Texas A-M) ; Hepplemann, S. (Penn State U.) ; Hippolyte, B. (Strasbourg, IReS) ; Hirsch, A. (Purdue U.) ; Hjort, E. (LBL, Berkeley) ; Hoffmann, G.W. (Texas U.) ; Huang, H.Z. (UCLA) ; Huang, S.L. (Hefei, CUST) ; Hughes, E.W. (Caltech) ; Humanic, T.J. (Ohio State U.) ; Igo, G. (UCLA) ; Ishihara, A. (Texas U.) ; Jacobs, P. (LBL, Berkeley) ; Jacobs, W.W. (Indiana U.) ; Janik, M. (Warsaw U. of Tech.) ; Jiang, H. (UCLA) ; Jones, P.G. (Birmingham U.) ; Judd, E.G. (UC, Berkeley) ; Kabana, S. (Bern U.) ; Kang, K. (Tsinghua U., Beijing) ; Kaplan, M. (Carnegie Mellon U.) ; Keane, D. (Kent State U.) ; Kechechyan, A. (Dubna, JINR) ; Khodyrev, V.Yu. (Serpukhov, IHEP) ; Kiryluk, J. (MIT) ; Kisiel, A. (Warsaw U. of Tech.) ; Kislov, E.M. (Dubna, JINR) ; Klay, J. (LBL, Berkeley) ; Klein, S.R. (LBL, Berkeley) ; Koetke, D.D. (Valparaiso U., Indiana) ; Kollegger, T. (Frankfurt U.) ; Kopytine, M. (Kent State U.) ; Kotchenda, L. (Moscow Phys. Eng. Inst.) ; Kramer, M. (City Coll., N.Y.) ; Kravtsov, P. (Moscow Phys. Eng. Inst.) ; Kravtsov, V.I. (Serpukhov, IHEP) ; Krueger, K. (Argonne) ; Kuhn, C. (Strasbourg, IReS) ; Kulikov, A.I. (Dubna, JINR) ; Kumar, A. (Panjab U.) ; Kutuev, R.Kh. (Dubna, JINR) ; Kuznetsov, A.A. (Dubna, JINR) ; Lamont, M.A.C. (Yale U.) ; Landgraf, J.M. (Brookhaven) ; Lange, S. (Frankfurt U.) ; Laue, F. (Brookhaven) ; Lauret, J. (Brookhaven) ; Lebedev, A. (Brookhaven) ; Lednicky, R. (Dubna, JINR) ; Lehocka, S. (Dubna, JINR) ; LeVine, Micheal J. (Brookhaven) ; Li, C. (Hefei, CUST) ; Li, Q. (Wayne State U.) ; Li, Y. (Tsinghua U., Beijing) ; Lin, G. (Yale U.) ; Lindenbaum, S.J. (City Coll., N.Y.) ; Lisa, M.A. (Ohio State U.) ; Liu, F. (Hua-Zhong Normal U.) ; Liu, H. (Hefei, CUST) ; Liu, L. (Hua-Zhong Normal U.) ; Liu, Q.J. (Washington U., Seattle) ; Liu, Z. (Hua-Zhong Normal U.) ; Ljubicic, T. (Brookhaven) ; Llope, W.J. (Rice U.) ; Long, H. (UCLA) ; Longacre, R.S. (Brookhaven) ; Lopez-Noriega, M. (Ohio State U.) ; Love, W.A. (Brookhaven) ; Lu, Y. (Hua-Zhong Normal U.) ; Ludlam, T. (Brookhaven) ; Lynn, D. (Brookhaven) ; Ma, G.L. (SINAP, Shanghai) ; Ma, J.G. (UCLA) ; Ma, Y.G. (SINAP, Shanghai) ; Magestro, D. (Ohio State U.) ; Mahajan, S. (Jammu U.) ; Mahapatra, D.P. (Bhubaneswar, Inst. Phys.) ; Majka, R. (Yale U.) ; Mangotra, L.K. (Jammu U.) ; Manweiler, R. (Valparaiso U., Indiana) ; Margetis, S. (Kent State U.) ; Markert, C. (Kent State U.) ; Martin, L. (SUBATECH, Nantes) ; Marx, J.N. (LBL, Berkeley) ; Matis, H.S. (LBL, Berkeley) ; Matulenko, Yu.A. (Serpukhov, IHEP) ; McClain, C.J. (Argonne) ; McShane, T.S. (Creighton U.) ; Meissner, F. (LBL, Berkeley) ; Melnick, Yu. (Serpukhov, IHEP) ; Meschanin, A. (Serpukhov, IHEP) ; Miller, M.L. (MIT) ; Minaev, N.G. (Serpukhov, IHEP) ; Mironov, C. (Kent State U.) ; Mischke, A. (NIKHEF, Amsterdam) ; Mishra, D.K. (Bhubaneswar, Inst. Phys.) ; Mitchell, J. (Rice U.) ; Mohanty, B. (Calcutta, VECC) ; Molnar, L. (Purdue U.) ; Moore, C.F. (Texas U.) ; Morozov, D.A. (Serpukhov, IHEP) ; Munhoz, M.G. (Sao Paulo U.) ; Nandi, B.K. (Calcutta, VECC) ; Nayak, S.K. (Jammu U.) ; Nayak, T.K. (Calcutta, VECC) ; Nelson, J.M. (Birmingham U.) ; Netrakanti, P.K. (Calcutta, VECC) ; Nikitin, V.A. (Dubna, JINR) ; Nogach, L.V. (Serpukhov, IHEP) ; Nurushev, S.B. (Serpukhov, IHEP) ; Odyniec, G. (LBL, Berkeley) ; Ogawa, A. (Brookhaven) ; Okorokov, V. (Moscow Phys. Eng. Inst.) ; Oldenburg, M. (LBL, Berkeley) ; Olson, D. (LBL, Berkeley) ; Pal, S.K. (Calcutta, VECC) ; Panebratsev, Y. (Dubna, JINR) ; Panitkin, S.Y. (Brookhaven) ; Pavlinov, A.I. (Wayne State U.) ; Pawlak, T. (Warsaw U. of Tech.) ; Peitzmann, T. (NIKHEF, Amsterdam) ; Perevoztchikov, V. (Brookhaven) ; Perkins, C. (UC, Berkeley) ; Peryt, W. (Warsaw U. of Tech.) ; Petrov, V.A. (Wayne State U.) ; Phatak, S.C. (Bhubaneswar, Inst. Phys.) ; Picha, R. (UC, Davis) ; Planinic, M. (Zagreb U.) ; Pluta, J. (Warsaw U. of Tech.) ; Porile, N. (Purdue U.) ; Porter, J. (Washington U., Seattle) ; Poskanzer, Arthur M. (LBL, Berkeley) ; Potekhin, M. (Brookhaven) ; Potrebenikova, E. (Dubna, JINR) ; Potukuchi, B.V.K.S. (Jammu U.) ; Prindle, D. (Washington U., Seattle) ; Pruneau, C. (Wayne State U.) ; Putschke, J. (Munich, Max Planck Inst.) ; Rakness, G. (Penn State U.) ; Raniwala, R. (Rajasthan U.) ; Raniwala, S. (Rajasthan U.) ; Ravel, O. (SUBATECH, Nantes) ; Ray, R.L. (Texas U.) ; Razin, S.V. (Dubna, JINR) ; Reichhold, D. (Purdue U.) ; Reid, J.G. (Washington U., Seattle) ; Reinnarth, J. (SUBATECH, Nantes) ; Renault, G. (SUBATECH, Nantes) ; Retiere, F. (LBL, Berkeley) ; Ridiger, A. (Moscow Phys. Eng. Inst.) ; Ritter, H.G. (LBL, Berkeley) ; Roberts, J.B. (Rice U.) ; Rogachevskiy, O.V. (Dubna, JINR) ; Romero, J.L. (UC, Davis) ; Rose, A. (LBL, Berkeley) ; Roy, C. (SUBATECH, Nantes) ; Ruan, L. (Hefei, CUST) ; Russcher, M. (NIKHEF, Amsterdam) ; Sahoo, R. (Bhubaneswar, Inst. Phys.) ; Sakrejda, I. (LBL, Berkeley) ; Salur, S. (Yale U.) ; Sandweiss, J. (Yale U.) ; Sarsour, M. (Indiana U.) ; Savin, Igor A. (Dubna, JINR) ; Sazhin, P.S. (Dubna, JINR) ; Schambach, J. (Texas U.) ; Scharenberg, R.P. (Purdue U.) ; Schmitz, N. (Munich, Max Planck Inst.) ; Seger, J. (Creighton U.) ; Seyboth, P. (Munich, Max Planck Inst.) ; Shahaliev, E. (Dubna, JINR) ; Shao, M. (Hefei, CUST) ; Shao, W. (Caltech) ; Sharma, M. (Panjab U.) ; Shen, W.Q. (SINAP, Shanghai) ; Shestermanov, K.E. (Serpukhov, IHEP) ; Shimanskiy, S.S. (Dubna, JINR) ; Sichtermann, E. (LBL, Berkeley) ; Simon, F. (Munich, Max Planck Inst.) ; Singaraju, R.N. (Calcutta, VECC) ; Smirnov, N. (Yale U.) ; Snellings, R. (NIKHEF, Amsterdam) ; Sood, G. (Valparaiso U., Indiana) ; Sorensen, P. (LBL, Berkeley) ; Sowinski, J. (Indiana U.) ; Speltz, J. (Strasbourg, IReS) ; Spinka, H.M. (Argonne) ; Srivastava, B. (Purdue U.) ; Stadnik, A. (Dubna, JINR) ; Stanislaus, T.D.S. (Valparaiso U., Indiana) ; Stock, R. (Frankfurt U.) ; Stolpovsky, A. (Wayne State U.) ; Strikhanov, M. (Moscow Phys. Eng. Inst.) ; Stringfellow, B. (Purdue U.) ; Suaide, A.A.P. (Sao Paulo U.) ; Sugarbaker, E. (Ohio State U.) ; Suire, C. (Brookhaven) ; Sumbera, M. (Rez, Nucl. Phys. Inst.) ; Surrow, B. (MIT) ; Swanger, M. (Creighton U.) ; Symons, T.J.M. (LBL, Berkeley) ; Szanto de Toledo, A. (Sao Paulo U.) ; Tai, A. (UCLA) ; Takahashi, J. (Sao Paulo U.) ; Tang, A.H. (NIKHEF, Amsterdam) ; Tarnowsky, T. (Purdue U.) ; Thein, D. (UCLA) ; Thomas, J.H. (LBL, Berkeley) ; Timoshenko, S. (Moscow Phys. Eng. Inst.) ; Tokarev, M. (Dubna, JINR) ; Trentalange, S. (UCLA) ; Tribble, R.E. (Texas A-M) ; Tsai, O.D. (UCLA) ; Ulery, J. (Purdue U.) ; Ullrich, T. (Brookhaven) ; Underwood, David G. (Argonne) ; Van Buren, G. (Brookhaven) ; van Leeuwen, M. (LBL, Berkeley) ; Vander Molen, A.M. (Michigan State U.) ; Varma, R. (Indian Inst. Tech., Mumbai) ; Vasilevski, I.M. (Dubna, JINR) ; Vasiliev, A.N. (Serpukhov, IHEP) ; Vernet, R. (Strasbourg, IReS) ; Vigdor, S.E. (Indiana U.) ; Viyogi, Y.P. (Calcutta, VECC) ; Vokal, S. (Dubna, JINR) ; Voloshin, S.A. (Wayne State U.) ; Waggoner, W.T. (Creighton U.) ; Wang, F. (Purdue U.) ; Wang, G. (Kent State U.) ; Wang, G. (Caltech) ; Wang, X.L. (Hefei, CUST) ; Wang, Y. (Texas U.) ; Wang, Y. (Tsinghua U., Beijing) ; Wang, Z.M. (Hefei, CUST) ; Ward, H. (Texas U.) ; Watson, J.W. (Kent State U.) ; Webb, J.C. (Indiana U.) ; Westfall, G.D. (Michigan State U.) ; Wetzler, A. (LBL, Berkeley) ; Whitten, C. (UCLA) ; Wieman, H. (LBL, Berkeley) ; Wissink, S.W. (Indiana U.) ; Witt, R. (Bern U.) ; Wood, J. (UCLA) ; Wu, J. (Hefei, CUST) ; Xu, N. (LBL, Berkeley) ; Xu, Z. (Brookhaven) ; Xu, Z.Z. (Hefei, CUST) ; Yamamoto, E. (LBL, Berkeley) ; Yepes, P. (Rice U.) ; Yurevich, V.I. (Dubna, JINR) ; Zhang, H. (Brookhaven) ; Zhang, W.M. (Kent State U.) ; Zhang, Y. (Hefei, CUST) ; Zhang, Z.P. (Hefei, CUST) ; Zoulkarneev, R. (Dubna, JINR) ; Zoulkarneeva, Y. (Dubna, JINR) ; Zubarev, A.N. (Dubna, JINR)

Published in: Nucl.Phys.
Year: 2005
Vol.: A757
Page No: 102-183
Pages: 99

Abstract: We review the most important experimental results from the first three years of nucleus-nucleus collision studies at RHIC, with emphasis on results from the STAR experiment, and we assess their interpretation and comparison to theory. The theory-experiment comparison suggests that central Au+Au collisions at RHIC produce dense, rapidly thermalizing matter characterized by: (1) initial energy densities above the critical values predicted by lattice QCD for establishment of a Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP): (2) nearly ideal fluid flow, marked by constituent interactions of very short mean free path, established most probably at a stage preceding hadron formation: and (3) opacity to jets. Many of the observations are consistent with models incorporating QGP formation in the early collision stages, and have not found ready explanation in a hadronic framework. However, the measurements themselves do not yet establish unequivocal evidence for a transition to this new form of matter. The theoretical treatment of the collision evolution, despite impressive successes, invokes a suite of distinct models, degrees of freedom and assumptions of as yet unknown quantitative consequence. We pose a set of important open questions, and suggest additional measurements, at least some of which should be addressed in order to establish a compelling basis to conclude definitively that thermalized, deconfined quark-gluon matter has been produced at RHIC.

Web-Page: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2005.03.085

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