/ Astrophysics physics/0408137


The HERMES polarized hydrogen and deuterium gas target in the HERA electron storage ring


Airapetian, A. ; Akopov, N. ; Akopov, Z. ; Amarian, M. ; Andrus, A. ; Aschenauer, E.C. ; Augustyniak, W. ; Avakian, R. ; Avetisian, A. ; Avetisian, E. ; Bailey, P. ; Balin, D. ; Baumgarten, C. ; Beckmann, M. ; Belostotsky, S. ; Bianchi, N. ; Blok, H.P. ; Bottcher, H. ; Borisov, A. ; Borisenko, A. ; Bouwhuis, M. ; Braun, B. ; Brull, A. ; Bryzgalov, V. ; Capitani, G.P. ; Capiluppi, M. ; Chen, T. ; Ciullo, G. ; Contalbrigo, M. ; Court, G. ; Dalpiaz, P.F. ; De Leo, R. ; Demey, M. ; De Nardo, L. ; De Sanctis, E. ; Devitsin, E. ; Di Nezza, P. ; Duren, M. ; Ehrenfried, M. ; Elalaoui-Moulay, A. ; Elbakian, G. ; Ellinghaus, F. ; Elschenbroich, U. ; Fabbri, R. ; Fantoni, A. ; Feshchenko, A. ; Felawka, L. ; Frullani, S. ; Gapienko, G. ; Gapienko, V. ; Garibaldi, F. ; Garrow, K. ; Gavrilov, G. ; Gharibyan, V. ; Graw, G. ; Grebenyuk, O. ; Gregor, I.M. ; Hadjidakis, C. ; Haeberli, W. ; Hafidi, K. ; Hartig, M. ; Hasch, D. ; Heesbeen, D. ; Henoch, M. ; Hertenberger, R. ; Hesselink, W.H.A. ; Hillenbrand, A. ; Hoek, M. ; Holler, Y. ; Hommez, B. ; Hristova, I. ; Yarygin, G. ; Ivanilov, A. ; Izotov, A. ; Jackson, H.E. ; Jgoun, A. ; Kaiser, R. ; Kinney, E. ; Kiselev, A. ; Kobayashi, T. ; Koch, N. ; Kolster, H. ; Kopytin, M. ; Korotkov, V. ; Kozlov, V. ; Krauss, B. ; Krivokhizhin, V.G. ; Lagamba, L. ; Lapikas, L. ; Laziev, A. ; Lenisa, P. ; Liebing, P. ; Linden-Levy, L.A. ; Lorenzon, W. ; Lu, H. ; Lu, J. ; Lu, S. ; Ma, B.Q. ; Maiheu, B. ; Makins, N.C.R. ; Mao, Y. ; Marianski, B. ; Marukian, H. ; Mexner, V. ; Meyners, N. ; Mussa, R. ; Miklukho, O. ; Miller, C.A. ; Miyachi, Y. ; Muccifora, V. ; Nagaitsev, A. ; Nappi, E. ; Naryshkin, Yu. ; Nass, A. ; Negodaev, M. ; Nowak, W.D. ; Oganesian, K. ; Ohsuga, H. ; Osborne, A. ; Pickert, N. ; Potterveld, David H. ; Raithel, M. ; Reggiani, D. ; Reimer, P.E. ; Reischl, A. ; Reolon, A.R. ; Riedl, C. ; Rith, K. ; Rosner, G. ; Rostomian, A. ; Rubacek, L. ; Rubin, J. ; Ryckbosch, D. ; Salomatin, Y. ; Sanjev, I. ; Savin, Igor A. ; Schill, C. ; Schnell, G. ; Schuler, K.P. ; Seele, J. ; Seidl, R. ; Seitz, B. ; Shanidze, R. ; Shearer, C. ; Shibata, T.A. ; Shutov, V. ; Sinram, K. ; Sommer, W. ; Stancari, M. ; Statera, M. ; Steffens, E. ; Steijger, J.J.M. ; Stenzel, H. ; Stewart, J. ; Stinzing, F. ; Tait, P. ; Tanaka, H. ; Taroian, S. ; Chuiko, B. ; Terkulov, A. ; Trzcinski, A. ; Tytgat, M. ; Vandenbroucke, A. ; van der Nat, P. ; van der Steenhoven, G. ; van Haarlem, Y. ; Vetterli, M.C. ; Vikhrov, V. ; Vincter, M.G. ; Vogel, C. ; Volmer, J. ; Wang, S. ; Wendland, J. ; Wilbert, J. ; Wise, T. ; Ybeles Smit, G. ; Ye, Y. ; Ye, Z. ; Yen, S. ; Zihlmann, B. ; Zupranski, P.

Published in: Nucl.Instrum.Meth.
Year: 2005
Vol.: A540
Page No: 68-101

Abstract: The HERMES hydrogen and deuterium nuclear-polarized gas targets have been in use since 1996 with the polarized electron beam of HERA at DESY to study the spin structure of the nucleon. Polarized atoms from a Stern-Gerlach Atomic Beam Source are injected into a storage cell internal to the HERA electron ring. Atoms diffusing from the center of the storage cell into a side tube are analyzed to determine the atomic fraction and the atomic polarizations. The atoms have a nuclear polarization, the axis of which is defined by an external magnetic holding field. The holding field was longitudinal during 1996-2000, and was changed to transverse in 2001. The design of the target is described, the method for analyzing the target polarization is outlined, and the performance of the target in the various running periods is presented.

Keyword(s): polarized targets ; internal target ; atomic beam source ; polarimeters ; detection of atomic beams ; spin polarized hydrogen ; deuterium

Web-Page: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2004.11.020

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